Posts Tagged ‘Extension 2’

One of the questions I am asked frequently by Extension English students (both Year 11 and Year 12) is, “what’s the deal with postmodernism?”

I think one of the reasons that students struggle with this concept is because they’ve lived their entire lives in a world shaped by postmodernity, so it’s difficult to step back and see the idea as a whole.

Here are some of the key concepts:

Questioning and Uncertainty

Postmodernism, like other movements or discourses, is a reaction against earlier ways of seeing of the world. Postmodernism questions the seeming certainty of more traditional views such as institutional religions, conservative politics, and even the scientific method. Where another worldview may see clear black and white, postmodernism sees only greys.

Signifier and Signified

Postmodernism also questions the ability of language to accurately convey meaning, because a word for an object or idea can never be the object or idea itself.

This image, by postmodern artist, Magritte, reinforces this idea. The image of the pipe is captioned, “this is not a pipe,” meaning that an image of a pipe (a signifier, which we interpret as readers) is not actually a pipe (the signified). An acknowledgement of this idea leads to reader response and hypertextual theories of literature.


Postmodernism can seem to some students not only confusing but also overly cynical. What seems to be missing is the element of fun. Postmodern texts often hae fund with ideas and language, through the Ps of postmodernism: Parody, Pastiche, and Play. Parody and pastiche both involve the appropriation of earlier texts or concepts. While both are often humourous, parody is often employed for satirical purposes, while pastiche often refers to the collaging of different textual forms together.

This is a very basic introduction to the ideas of postmodernism. If you want more information, I suggest



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If you’re in Year 11, you can probably see the pre- and post-Trial HSC chaos around your school. If you’re in Year 11 and you’re smart, you might be thinking, “that’s going to be me in a year’s time.” If you’re in Year 11 and you’re really smart, you might be thinking, “what can I do to prepare and ensure that I’m less freaked out than the Year 12s are now?”

The answer to that last question is two-fold:

  1. READ
  2. WRITE

What you should read depends on the English course(s) you’re currently taking and what you intend to take in Year 12. Obviously the reading list for someone taking Extension 1 and 2 is going to be different from the one for someone taking Standard. Keeping this in mind, I will post separate suggestions for each course with particular ideas for different module/elective/text combinations.

The writing, though, is pretty much the same for everyone and it goes like this:

  1. Write notes in class
  2. Practise expanding and summarising your notes
  3. Write paragraphs whenever possible
  4. Write personal and analytical responses

One caveat:


I’ll say more about the value of a reading journal in a later post (or, as I often do, I’ll forget then someone will post a question, then I’ll write a post).

1. Write notes in class. Practise note taking from what you hear in class; not just what the teacher says, but interesting points that come up in discussion. Chances are you’ll have to do a listening task as part of the HSC and, in that type of assessment, to the successful note-taker go the spoils. Note taking is a skill that can be improved easily and quickly with practice. You also never know when an offhand comment by a classmate might become a kick-ass thesis for an essay.

2. Practise expanding and summarising your notes. Our Year 11s are gearing up (or should be gearing up) for their exams. One of the best ways to prepare is to make summaries of your notes. Of course, in order to make summaries, you need to have notes to begin with (see dot point 1). Before you hit the summarising stage, it is useful to go back through your notes and add to them. You can do this through annotating or rewriting. You can also work with a study buddy, filling in the gaps in each other’s notes. Summarising should pare your notes down to what you will actually use in an exam-style essay: themes/ideas, quotes, techniques, explanations. Check out earlier posts on how to summarise for specific modules to see what I mean.

3. Practise paragraphs whenever possible. A fairly typical English class may consist of a discussion followed by writing some short responses on a text. Rather than writing dot points or unconnected sentences, try writing short paragraphs. For example:

Question: What is the purpose of the prologue in Romeo and Juliet?

Answer 1:

  • outline the story
  • introduce the characters

Answer 2:

The prologue in Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet acts as a Greek chorus. This dramatic technique would have been familiar to an Elizabethan audience. In the prologue the characters are introduced and their fate as “star cross’d lovers” is foreshadowed. The prologue also tells the audience the play’s message about the tragic consequences of continuing and “ancient feud.”

The second student has spent a few more minutes thinking about the question and may not have had time to check her text messages under the table when she was done. But she has also, with just a little time and effort, improved her essay writing skills. In fact, she has produced a short, but well structured, paragraph that would not be out of place in an essay on Romeo and Juliet. Every time you write a paragraph when everyone else is writing dot points, you get better at essay writing and they…well, you’re smart, you’re reading this, you work it out.

4. Write personal and analytical responses. I’ve gone over this in earlier post but writing personal responses is a really good way to start clarifying your ideas about a text. The analytical responses come next. My senior students are required to submit one extended response every two weeks, we start with personal responses and then ramp up to analytical. The students who do this consistently get feedback and get better at articulating their ideas as well as structuring their writing.

If your teacher doesn’t have a regular routine for writing and submitting extended responses, make one for yourself and ask your teacher for feedback. If your teacher can’t look at them regularly, ask a parent, a sibling, a tutor, or a study buddy for feedback, even if it’s just, “does this make sense?” Make sure you put the date on each response and file it away so when you’re freaking out this time next year you can look back and think, “yes, I am improving.”

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